Compared with the government railway system, most of the bush logging tramways were of a simple or primitive construction. Wooden or lightweight steel rails were typically used, fixed to closely-packed roughly cut sleepers laid either straight on the ground without ballast or on heavy bearer logs. Extensive earthworks were in most cases avoided but some tramways featured quite substantial timber trestle or 'make-up' bridges with timber being naturally cheap and in ready supply. Bush tramways were usually operated by either horses or lightweight steam locomotives; although diesel and petrol rail tractors where also used after 1930. Extensive use was also made of falling grades allowing gravity to do the work, while counter-balanced inclines or steam winches operated steeper sections with wire-rope cables.